Project dates: September 2011-March 2018
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SIAPS has been proactive in supporting Swaziland in various areas of the pharmaceutical sector, which has contributed to the containment of antimicrobial resistance. During the process of developing the National AMR Containment Strategic Plan, the stakeholders and the AMR committee have learned valuable lessons—in particular, the importance of the One Health approach, as well as the leadership and collaboration, financial and technical capacity required not only for the development of the strategic plan, but also for its implementation. Understanding the One Health approach at the early stages of the process is helpful in leadership and in collaboration with national and international stakeholders, and securing stakeholders’ technical and financial commitment, in addition to the government’s investment in the implementation of the strategic plan. SIAPS’ timely technical support played a key part in finalizing the National AMR Containment Strategic Plan.
SIAPS and its predecessor programs have assisted numerous countries in strengthening governance to promote robust decision making, enhance accountability, reduce opportunities for corruption, and improve efficiencies to enable better access to and use of quality-assured medicines. This compendium draws on these experiences and provides a collection of examples of strategies and approaches for strengthening governance in pharmaceutical systems. The compendium highlights accumulated insights into factors that may have enabled or constrained the success of governance improvement initiatives. The intention is to systematically bolster knowledge, in alignment with USAID’s collaborating, learning, and adapting approach, so that stakeholders may examine the applicability of lessons learned and apply them in different settings to maximize resources and attain better development results. The compendium begins by defining governance, then explains its importance in pharmaceutical systems and introduces the framework SIAPS has used to guide its governance strengthening activities. It presents eight case studies on SIAPS’ work in enhancing governance in pharmaceutical systems, summarizes challenges commonly encountered and lessons learned, and closes with some reflections on the usefulness of SIAPS’ governance-strengthening framework.
According to the World Health Organization, many countries spend 30–40% of their health care budgets on medicines and medical commodities, and a significant amount of the funds are wasted because of irrational medicines use and inefficiencies in stock management due to lack of skills. Other serious problems that health care organizations face include the overuse of antimicrobials, which increases the risks of antimicrobial resistance, leads to increased adverse drug reactions (ADRs), and results in considerably higher costs associated with drug use. Training pharmacy personnel on proper handling of medicines can help improve the proper handling and dispensing of medicines, rational use of medicines, and adherence to treatment to improve patient health outcomes. The primary objective of the HIV/TB pharmaceutical management and supply chain training was to develop the skills of the pharmacy personnel on proper management of HIV and TB medicines in health facilities.
Inside this issue:
- Pharmacovigilance in Swaziland
- Update on 2016-2017 Spontaneous Reporting Systems
- Medicine Safety Alerts
- How to Report an ADE
Analysis of Passive Surveillance Data Collected by the Swaziland Pharmacovigilance Unit, October 2016-March 2017
With support from SIAPS, the Swaziland National Pharmacovigilance Unit (NPVU) has been monitoring the safety of medicines used in the county by collecting and collating reports of adverse drug reactions (ADR) and other medicine-related problems through its spontaneous reporting system established under the country’s Ministry of Health in 2009. In addition, SIAPS has been supporting active surveillance for ARV and TB medicines. ADRs and other medicine-related problems are reported to the NPVU by health care providers using a paper ADR reporting form. Completed forms are sent to the NPVU or collected from health care facilities on a quarterly basis for data entry and analysis. SIAPS supports the collection of the forms and has seconded a data clerk to the NPVU to enter the data from the forms into Microsoft Excel. SIAPS support was further sought to analyze PV data and build the capacity of the PV team to undertake routine analysis of those data. The main objective of the work was to analyze PV data generated from the spontaneous reporting system in Swaziland to inform clinical practice (rational medicine use) and improve patient outcomes.
HIV/TB Pharmaceutical Management Training in Swaziland to Improve Medicine Availability and Rational Use
An off-site training was held for 104 pharmacy personnel (32 males, 72 females) responsible for managing HIV and TB medicines in 88 health facilities in the 4 regions around the country. SIAPS supported the training, which included pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, and nurses. The trainings took place over August 7–17, 2017, and each region was trained […]
Factors Associated With First-Line to Second-Line ART Regimen Switching Identified in the APMR Data Systems in Swaziland
In Swaziland, many observations have revealed that approaches to using the patient and logistics data from the Antiretroviral Therapy Patient Monitoring and Reporting (APMR) and RxSolution data systems were not always comparable, and results of data analysis from these electronic systems have not been adequately incorporated into decision-making processes. To bridge such gaps, a capacity-building initiative was started to ensure adequate training and demonstration of how the data in these electronic systems could be used for targeted programmatic data analysis and research to improve decision making. Through engagements with the MOH, a joint decision was made to study the factors associated with switching regimens from first-line to second-line ART that were identified in the APMR data management systems.
SIAPS provides technical assistance to the Inter-Ministerial Commission on Medicines Availability in Swaziland
Upon receiving an invitation from the Right Honourable Prime Minister of Swaziland, Dr Sibusiso Barnabas Dlamini, SIAPS provided technical assistance to the task team appointed to examine the problem of inconsistent availability of essential medicines. Recent media reports and routine assessments conducted by the SIAPS Program indicated frequent stock-outs of essential medicines and medicinal supplies, […]
Supportive Supervision and Mentorship Site Visit for Pharmacy Services in the Shiselweni Region, Swaziland
With support from SIAPS and in collaboration with other development partners, the Central Medical Stores (CMS) conducts supportive supervision and mentorship (SSM) visits to health facilities. Through these visits, the capacity of health personnel is built to effectively manage pharmaceuticals and services, improve the rational use of pharmaceuticals, and strengthen supply chain management at all levels of health care delivery.
- The Use of Pharmaceutical Information for Decision Making in Namibia's National ART Program: Assessment Report
SIAPS conducted this assessment to determine the extent to which pharmaceutical information generated from the Electronic Dispensing Tool (EDT) and […]
The Directorate of Drugs and Medical Supplies (DDMS) plays a key role in providing technical guidance and setting strategic direction […]
- Systems for Improved Access to Pharmaceuticals and Services (SIAPS) Program Inventory of Key Technical Resources
The main purpose of this inventory is to serve as a reference to help stakeholders working in the pharmaceutical sector […]