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The Use of Pharmaceutical Information for Decision Making in Namibia’s National ART Program: Assessment Report

SIAPS conducted this assessment to determine the extent to which pharmaceutical information generated from the Electronic Dispensing Tool (EDT) and dashboard is used by key stakeholders in the national antiretroviral therapy (ART) program in making decisions regarding the management of medicines and related services and, to the extent possible, identify potential influences on program outcomes. The assessment used a descriptive case study approach based on 28 interviews conducted with key stakeholders in the national ART program and a desk review of program-related documents and publications.

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Retreat Report: SIAPS and Directorate of Drugs and Medical Supplies Activity Plan

The Directorate of Drugs and Medical Supplies (DDMS) plays a key role in providing technical guidance and setting strategic direction in policy formulation, service delivery, standards, laws and regulations, and objectives for the pharmaceutical sector in Sierra Leone. It is also involved in stakeholders’ collaboration and coalition building, resource mobilization and deployment of resources, monitoring, and oversight. It is therefore necessary to review and finalize the DDMS structure at all levels to reflect this expanded role, especially with regard to the ongoing decentralization process, the necessary capacity that needs to be developed, and aligning DDMS’ work plan with SIAPS. As part of SIAPS’ system strengthening strategy and by way of addressing the challenges identified during implementation interventions for pharmaceutical supply chain management, SIAPS, in collaboration with DDMS, has identified those topics that would be most valuable for sustained, effective leadership and systems to drive the success of the pharmaceutical sector in Sierra Leone.

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Improving Supply Chain Management in the DGFP in Bangladesh through the Logistics Coordination Forum

The Logistics Coordination Forum (LCF) is a platform to prepare, review, revise, and update the needs of contraceptives and the medical surgical requisite (MSR), consumption trends, stock status, pipeline positions, procurement status, SCM issues, etc., and to suggest capacity building and system improvements in the areas of procurement, storage, and supply management for DGFP.

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Standard Operating Procedures for Planning and Implementing a Continuous Results Monitoring and Support System in Sierra Leone at the Primary Health Unit Level

Since May 2016, the Directorate of Drugs and Medical Supplies (DDMS) and SIAPS have supported district health management teams (DHMTs) to implement the continuous results monitoring and support system (CRMS) in their respective health facilities. By the end of 2017, 10 of the 13 districts and more than 1,000 health facilities had conducted three rounds of quarterly CRMS supervisions, reviewed the evidence in stakeholder review workshops, and produced reports. The indicators tracked are generally classified as service indicators (monitoring treatment uptake, consumption, stock status, and rational use) and system indicators (monitoring availability and functioning of information systems and forms, storage and handling, availability of skilled staff, and capacity building). CRMS supervisors use a checklist and various tools and forms to complete their findings and observations; they also provide real-time mentorship and support to address challenges. The findings and observations of CRMS exercises are summarized and presented to key stakeholders and owners of the system in a CRMS review forum where actionable plans are discussed and operationalized by the next quarterly exercise. The purpose of this standard operating procedure (SOP), which was prepared as a job aid, is to provide a frame of reference for implementing a CRMS to conduct comprehensive, participatory, and responsive monitoring using the first exercise as a baseline to track trends in improvement following continuous engagement of target facilities. This approach is in line with supportive supervision and monitoring system but is more proactive and action oriented.

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Report of a ToT and Cascade Training on Leadership Development Program for Pharmacists from the Public Sector of the Ministry of Health and Sanitation of Sierra Leone

The pharmaceutical sector in Sierra Leone faces several challenges. The Ministry of Health and Sanitation (MOHS), in collaboration with different partners, is in the process of strengthening the capacity of district and peripheral health facilities (hospitals and peripheral health units (PHUs)) to ensure an uninterrupted supply of essential medicines, manage supply chain activities through an improved nationwide pharmaceutical management information system, and promote rational medicine use for better health outcomes. USAID support to the MOHS through SIAPS focuses on pharmaceutical management systems strengthening and supply chain management through capacity building and technical assistance to improve governance, management and leadership, selection and quantification, pharmaceutical management information systems, rational medicine use, and CRMS. The purpose of conducting MSH’s LDP training was to build the capacity of Sierra Leone’s DDMS, district/hospital pharmacists, and SIAPS staff in leadership, management, and governance. The goal was to ensure that the directorate, its district/hospital pharmacists, and SIAPS Sierra Leone staff would be equipped with the knowledge and skills to manage and lead the different components of the program efficiently in a transparent and participatory manner. The purpose of the training of trainers (ToT) for the LDP was to establish a pool of local LDP facilitators who could cascade the program to other DDMS staff and district/hospital pharmacists throughout the 13 districts.

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Using Support Supervisory Visits for Monitoring and Mentorship for Pharmaceutical Services Delivery in Namibia

SIAPS has supported the Division: Pharmaceutical Services to conduct support supervisory visit (SSVs) to monitor and assess progress of the supported programs and provide recommendations to further strengthen implementation of pharmaceutical service delivery. The SSVs are used to monitor the extent of implementation of interventions aimed at strengthening pharmaceutical services in MRMDs, hospitals, and primary health care (PHC) facilities; identify challenges in the services; provide onsite support; and make recommendations to address the challenges. These visits are carried out once a year, and the SSV teams check whether issues identified from previous visits have been addressed. SIAPS has supported the MOHSS to implement strategies to strengthen the inventory management of antiretroviral (ARV) medicines and the ART pharmaceutical system. A stronger inventory management system will enable the country to cope with the scale-up of ART services, which increased quantities of health commodities and more complex inventory management tasks.

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SIAPS’ Technical Assistance to Strengthen Medicines Regulation in Namibia 2011-2017

SIAPS helped improve pharmaceutical product quality by building the capacity of the Namibia Medicines Regulatory Council (NMRC) to review medicine registration dossiers; inspect pharmaceutical manufacturing facilities and finished (imported) products at ports of entry and in the marketplace; to chemically test medicines compliance with established standards; and monitor overall compliance with applicable regulatory standards and norms. In addition, SIAPS supported MOHSS in strengthening the management and regulation of medical devices and support equipment in Namibia, and in revising the National Medicines Policy, a crucial of pharmaceutical regulation and governance. SIAPS supported the reconfiguration of the desk-top Pharmadex tool to a web-based application. In general, the six-year support of the SIAPS project to the NMRC contributed to the strengthening of this regulatory agency, which in turn, contributed to improvements in service delivery to the clients. The registration process improved, to decrease the long-standing backlog of dossiers; PMS ensured safety and quality of pharmaceuticals; and implementation of web-based Pharmadex provided a means for clients/applicants to upload applications and follow up the progress of dossier review, which reduced workload for NMRC staff. SIAPS provided continuous TA for the restructuring of the NMRC.

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Training Workshop on Quantification with Quantimed and PipeLine Tools in Freetown, Sierra Leone

The purpose, objectives, and activities of this program are designed to reflect the Government of Sierra Leone’s Health Sector Recovery Plan. Specifically, SIAPS will provide support for strengthening the supply chain system, including capacity-building activities that focus on district-and peripheral-unit levels to assist in restarting programs of the Ministry of Health and Sanitation (MOHS); the DDMS (which is responsible for coordinating and providing pharmaceutical services, including promoting rational use of medicines); the National Pharmaceutical Procurement Unit; and the Pharmacy Board of Sierra Leone.

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PSS Insight: A Tool for Measuring Progressive Pharmaceutical Systems Strengthening

In 2012, when the US Agency for International Development (USAID) awarded the SIAPS Program, it tasked the program with developing a measurement framework and corresponding indicators for determining whether investments in pharmaceutical systems strengthening are contributing to the development of stronger, more sustainable pharmaceutical systems. At that time, there were no widely accepted definitions for a pharmaceutical system or pharmaceutical systems strengthening. Furthermore, there was no standardized approach for measuring progress toward stronger, more sustainable pharmaceutical systems. In 2014, SIAPS conducted a series of literature reviews and held a consultative meeting of SIAPS partners and experts in the field to propose definitions for a pharmaceutical system and pharmaceutical systems strengthening. Once these key parameters for measurement were identified, SIAPS arranged them within a framework for measurement to guide the selection of indicators and determine a basis to guide the measurement process. Once the framework was in place, an extensive review process of existing indicator-based assessment tools and manuals was undertaken to develop an indicator bank from which to select measures for the PSS Insight tool. Working with experts from Boston University School of Public Health, SIAPS selected key indicators that form the basis of a tool to measure progress in pharmaceutical systems strengthening, using defined indicator selection criteria. The resulting tool, called PSS Insight, is a web-based data management system comprising 117 indicators intended to measure progress in pharmaceutical systems strengthening, both across countries and over time.

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Optimizing the Marketing Authorization Process in Benin: Institutionalization and Development of Medicine Registration Standard Operating Procedures

DPMED is responsible for registration of medicines prior to importation by licensed importers and their use by health providers and consumers. However, the department is hindered in execution of its mandate because of several challenges. The extent of illegal and unregistered medicines in circulation is not uncommon. DPMED is constrained by its capacity to effectively regulate the pharmaceutical sector with consequent inefficiencies in key processes, such as medicine registration, leading to delayed access to life-saving medicines. For these reasons, the Benin MOH sought assistance from USAID to help strengthen the medicine registration system for effective performance to hasten access to quality assured medicines. The SIAPS Program conducted a rapid assessment of the medicine registration system in November 2016, and in August 2017, conducted a detailed assessment of the medicine registration system at DPMED. Based on the findings from the two assessments conducted by the SIAPS Program, several recommendations were made. One of the recommendations was to optimize the medicine registration process by establishing a consistent way of handling registration dossiers to promote an efficient process. Standard operating procedures (SOPs) were developed so that the registration department could operate more efficiently. In addition, the SOPs served as a prerequisite for establishing an effective and sustainable electronic medicine registration system.

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