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Inventory Control and Good Storage Practices Training for Primary Health Care Nurses and Pharmacy Staff in Khomas, Ohangwena, and Otjozondjupa Regions, Namibia

Although SIAPS introduced a number of automated inventory control tools, such as the Facility Electronic Stock Card (FESC) and Electronic Dispensing Tool (EDT) for district hospitals, since June 2015, at the primary health care (PHC) level, inventory control and storage practice are a major challenge and the major cause of stock-out of medicines for antiretroviral therapy (ART), tuberculosis (TB), and malaria in all regions in Namibia. To ameliorate these challenges, the MOHSS has revised and distributed standard operating procedures (SOPs) for the management of medicines and medical supplies at PHC facilities in the period of 2015–16, and training on these SOPs has been provided to all staff at the PHC level in the Khomas, Ohangwena, and Otjozondjupa regions in the months of May, June, August, and November 2017. A training was needed to improve inventory control and good storage practices, thereby improving access and restraining increases in the pharmaceutical budget by reducing expiries and damaged pharmaceuticals and at the same time building the training capacity of the regional pharmacists. Facilitation of these trainings was supported by the SIAPS technical advisor. The trainings aimed to improve the management of ARVs, TB medicines, and related health commodities. It was necessary to improve inventory control and good storage practices, thereby improving access and further reducing the increasing pharmaceutical budget by reducing cases of expired and damaged pharmaceuticals.

 

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Benin National Supply Chain Assessment

In an effort to improve the health status of the Beninese population, a priority activity included in the 2015 convention between the US Government, represented by USAID, and the Benin Government, represented by the Ministry of Health (MOH), was to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the public health supply chain, focused on essential medicines that are associated with the package of low-cost, high-impact interventions. SIAPS undertook this assessment in close collaboration with and under the leadership of the MOH, represented by the National Health Products Supply Chain. This report presents information on the capability, maturity, and operational performance of Benin’s health supply system, along with a strategic plan of interventions to address identified weaknesses that will allow reliable supply and use of medicines in the health system.

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Department of Health Training Guide on Warehousing and Distribution of Family Planning, TB, and other Health Commodities in the Philippines

This guide is written for the DOH Philippines’ LMD. It can be used as support material in the training and development of new and existing staff involved in warehouse and distribution operations at all levels, particularly those who are involved in the process of receiving, putaway and storing, picking and packing, and dispatching of FP, TB, and other health commodities in DOH warehouses.

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Capacity Building for Healthcare Personnel to Manage Pharmaceutical Services at ART and NIMART Sites, October 2015 to September 2016

SIAPS supported the Ministry of Health and Social Services to enhance capacity of pharmaceutical HR to manage pharmaceutical services in public health facilities in Namibia. The major objectives of the activities were to build HR capacity in pharmaceutical management and service delivery for improved HIV and AIDS treatment outcomes and improve availability and use of pharmaceutical service data for improved quality of ART services. Activities comprised onsite staff mentoring through supportive supervision visits and training sessions adapted to the needs of the target healthcare workers.

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HIV/TB Pharmaceutical Management and Supply Chain Training Report

According to the World Health Organization, many countries spend 30–40% of their health care budgets on medicines and medical commodities, and a significant amount of the funds are wasted because of irrational medicines use and inefficiencies in stock management due to lack of skills. Other serious problems that health care organizations face include the overuse of antimicrobials, which increases the risks of antimicrobial resistance, leads to increased adverse drug reactions (ADRs), and results in considerably higher costs associated with drug use. Training pharmacy personnel on proper handling of medicines can help improve the proper handling and dispensing of medicines, rational use of medicines, and adherence to treatment to improve patient health outcomes. The primary objective of the HIV/TB pharmaceutical management and supply chain training was to develop the skills of the pharmacy personnel on proper management of HIV and TB medicines in health facilities.

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Technical Assistance to Strengthen the Angola Central Medical Warehouse System

The purpose of this activity was to design and implement warehouse operations system improvements for CECOMA, and to design and implement a human resource capability development and performance improvement (HRCD&PI) program based on the identified gaps.  The assignment entailed conducting a rapid analysis of warehouse and distribution system capacity, including staff capacity, to identify gaps and validate previous findings, and then to design and implement customized warehouse system strengthening improvements as well as an appropriate HRCD&PI program. Information was gathered through record reviews and interviewing CECOMA management and key informants in the different operational units of the warehouse. Qualitative data were collected through one-on-one interviews and focus group discussions.

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Strengthening Registration and Quality Assurance Systems for Generic ARVs, Related Medicines, and Devices in Namibia

In Namibia, USAID has been providing funding for technical assistance in the areas of pharmaceutical management and systems strengthening since 2003. During this period, the Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus (RPM Plus) and Strengthening Pharmaceutical Systems (SPS) programs were implemented. RPM Plus supported interventions that largely focused on strengthening systems for the antiretroviral therapy (ART) and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV programs. SPS focused on strengthening systems based on World Health Organization (WHO) building blocks, increasing the number of pharmaceutical personnel available for service delivery, strengthening policy coordination, and improving the regulatory functions of the NMRC. SIAPS focuses on further strengthening of regulatory and management systems in the pharmaceutical sector under the governance and health systems strategic area to support HIV and AIDS and other public health services.

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Establishment of Pre-Service Mid-Level Pharmacy Training in Swaziland: From Assessment to Implementation

To assess the feasibility of launching a pharmacy training program or programs in Swaziland, the assessment considered the establishment of different pharmacy training programs with different training models, taking into consideration market requirements in both the public and private sectors. The feasibility assessment recommended the ideal curriculum to be adopted for Swaziland.

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Technical Brief: Strengthening Namibia’s Pharmacy Sector and Workforce

Namibia faces a dual public health burden of HIV and AIDS and tuberculosis (TB). Critical to the treatment and management of these diseases is an effective workforce that can provide quality pharmaceutical services throughout the country. Pharmacists and pharmacist assistants (PAs) play critical roles in dispensing life-saving medications, monitoring patient health and progress, and educating both patients and other health professionals about proper medication use, storage, and dispensing practices. To meet the high demand for quality pharmaceutical services and to ensure that pharmacy personnel needs are being met, the US Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Systems for Improved Access to Pharmaceuticals and Services (SIAPS) Program supported the Government of the Republic of Namibia in the long-term planning of pharmaceutical human resources and building the capacity of two local institutions to provide pre-service and in-service pharmaceutical management training.

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Systems-based Approaches to Improving Medication Adherence

With the shift from a disease landscape that focuses on the treatment of acute and short-term illnesses to one that faces an increasing burden of chronic diseases that may require life-long medicine use, the role of medicines in ensuring a healthy population is more important than ever.

However,even when medicines are available, patients may not take them as directed. In other words, they may not adhere to the treatment prescribed to them. This problem is surprisingly widespread. Several studies have estimated that in developed countries, only approximately 50% of patients who suffer from chronic diseases take their medicines as directed.

This document suggests a health systems strengthening (HSS) approach to addressing
medication adherence issues, with a particular emphasis on its application in low- and middle-income settings. Chapter 2 reviews the importance of considering health systems in improving medication adherence and introduces a system-based framework, while Chapters 3–5 discuss approaches, interventions, and activities that span the health system as described at the
macro, meso, and micro levels and provide implementation examples.

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