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Inventory of Key USAID and Global AMR-related System Strengthening Resources/Interventions

This inventory is a selected list of resources and interventions that support antimicrobial resistance (AMR) containment. The objective of this inventory is to provide a list of key resources, tools, and interventions that create or strengthen systems that are necessary to improve antimicrobial use and AMR containment. Along with the full references, links are provided directly to the documents or to sites from where the documents can be downloaded. The intention is to periodically update the inventory as new resources, tools, and evidence-based interventions become available.

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In the news: Capacity building to defeat AMR

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the world’s most pressing global health threats and could erode the progress made in the treatment of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and many other infectious diseases. Although AMR occurs naturally, many interrelated factors, including excessive or inappropriate use of antibiotics, poor control practices, and infection prevention, contribute to its acceleration […]

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Combating Antimicrobial Resistance with Strong Coalitions

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) occurs when microorganisms develop a resistance to a medicine that was originally intended to disable or kill them. While microbes naturally develop resistance to antimicrobials over time, AMR is accelerated by the overuse and misuse of antimicrobial medicines and non-adherence to treatment regimens. AMR jeopardizes the effectiveness of complex surgeries and procedures […]

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Building Coalitions for Containing Antimicrobial Resistance: A Guide

This guide aims to help individuals, organizations, and governments develop, establish, and maintain effective multidisciplinary and multisectoral coalitions to combat AMR. This document provides guidance on building and strengthening coalitions to combat AMR through five key elements. It primarily focuses on the creation and establishment of new coalitions; however, these elements are relevant throughout the lifespan of a coalition, and revisiting each periodically may be important as coalitions grow and evolve, expand in scope or wane and need to be revitalized. In addition, the elements of coalition building may not necessarily occur in strict sequential order. Depending on the context and existing systems in place, coalitions may be able to use situational analyses that have already been conducted or utilize an existing active network. In each setting, it is important to understand the needs of the coalition and focus on the elements of this guide that align best with those needs.

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Using Electronic Pharmacy Dispensing Data for Surveillance of Outpatient Antibiotic Consumption and Monitoring of Antibiotic Prescribing Practices at District and Provincial Hospitals in the South African Public Sector

The primary aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of using electronic pharmacy dispensing data extracted from RxSolution® for the surveillance of outpatient (ambulatory) antibiotic consumption and monitor antibiotic prescribing practices at district and provincial hospitals in public health facilities in North West Province, South Africa, between April 2013 and March 2015. This was an exploratory project to develop hypotheses on the volume of antibiotics used and prescribing patterns.

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Every Breath Counts: Strengthening Pharmaceutical Systems for Better Health Outcomes with Pneumonia

By Jane Briggs, Principal Technical Advisor More than 900,000 children die of pneumonia each year (more than malaria, measles, and HIV/AIDS combined), according to the World Health Organization. Many of these cases go undiagnosed and untreated. How can this be when we know what works? A five-day, twice-daily amoxicillin regimen—in either dispersible tablet (DT) or oral […]

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Systems-based Approaches to Improving Medication Adherence

With the shift from a disease landscape that focuses on the treatment of acute and short-term illnesses to one that faces an increasing burden of chronic diseases that may require life-long medicine use, the role of medicines in ensuring a healthy population is more important than ever.

However,even when medicines are available, patients may not take them as directed. In other words, they may not adhere to the treatment prescribed to them. This problem is surprisingly widespread. Several studies have estimated that in developed countries, only approximately 50% of patients who suffer from chronic diseases take their medicines as directed.

This document suggests a health systems strengthening (HSS) approach to addressing
medication adherence issues, with a particular emphasis on its application in low- and middle-income settings. Chapter 2 reviews the importance of considering health systems in improving medication adherence and introduces a system-based framework, while Chapters 3–5 discuss approaches, interventions, and activities that span the health system as described at the
macro, meso, and micro levels and provide implementation examples.

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Improving Infection Prevention and Control Practices at Health Facilities in Resource-Limited Settings: SIAPS Technical Report

Infection prevention and control (IPC) is essential to reduce the spread of health facility-acquired (nosocomial) infections, including drug-resistant ones.

The USAID-funded Systems for Improved Access to Pharmaceuticals and Services (SIAPS) Program’s goal in global technical assistance in IPC is to reduce the development and spread of nosocomial infections and antimicrobial resistance. This contributes to an improved quality of patient care and safety in public health facilities in resource-constrained countries.

This report summarizes key accomplishments and lessons learned in implementing SIAPS’ approach to improving IPC practices in four countries: South Africa, Namibia, Jordan, and Ethiopia. All activities address SIAPS’s overall objective to build or enhance national and facility capacity to develop, implement, and monitor IPC programs by focusing on the principles of health systems strengthening.

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Containing Antimicrobial Resistance to Realize the Goals of Universal Health Coverage

Joshi MP. Containing antimicrobial resistance to realize the goals of universal health coverage. Oral presentation at the Ecumenical Pharmaceutical Network (EPN) Forum 2016, Tubingen, Germany. May 18-21, 2016.

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Call to Action: Combat Antimicrobial Resistance and Preserve Antimicrobials for Future Generations

Delegates at the Ecumenical Pharmaceutical Network (EPN) Forum 2016, agreed upon and issued a Call to Action against antimicrobial resistance during the biannual meeting, held 18-21 May 2016, in Tubingen, Germany. EPN, a partner of the USAID-funded SIAPS Program, issued the renewed call to action with support from SIAPS and other partners.

While antimicrobial resistance has long been recognized as global threat, actions to combat the spread and further emergence of AMR have been relatively limited. The Call to Action highlights four specific actions that can be taken forward by a number of key groups: 1) governments and policy makers; 2) health care institutions; 3) health schools, training institutions, and professional organizations; 4) health care providers and community health workers; and 5) patient advocacy groups and consumers.

 

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