This was a descriptive retrospective study that used secondary data collected from ART service pharmacies’ routine reports. The reports contained the patient’s medication profiles on specific type of regimen. All first- and second-line regimens are captured by the reports. The study used data and reports from September 2012 to September 2014. About 205,832 patients were on ART by September 2012; this number increased to 269,779 at the end of September 2014 because of program expansion and increase in the uptake of patients into the ART program. The 2012 data were collected from 318 ART sites while the 2014 data were collected from 383 ART sites, the increase owing to ART program scale-up to new facilities. About 52.3% (200/383) of the sites used the electronic dispensing tool. The remaining facilities used standard manual formats to capture the medication profiles. Data obtained from the ART reports were entered into MS Excel. For descriptive statistics, percentages of patients on d4T-, ZDV-, and TDF- based regimens were calculated at two-month intervals covering the two-year study period. Then trends of regimen switch (from d4T- to ZDV- or TDF-based regimens) were analyzed by using tables and graphs. In addition, differences in trends between switches to ZDV- and TDF-containing regimens were assessed. Success was determined by the degree to which regimen switches were achieved in accordance with the plan without treatment interruptions.
Phasing Out Stavudine-Containing Regimens in the Ethiopian ART Program: The Role of Pharmaceutical Information for Decision Making
Building Local Capacity for Clinical Pharmacy Service in Ethiopia through a Holistic In-Service Training Approach
Recognizing the need for patient-focused services and the competency gap in the curriculum, schools of pharmacy in Ethiopia revised their curricula in 2008 to focus more on the patient. In addition, recognizing the potential benefits of introducing clinical pharmacy to the patients and the health sector, the Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) has included clinical pharmacy services in the pharmacy chapter of the Ethiopian Hospital Reform Implementation Guidelines (EHRIG) as one of the key services to be provided by hospitals. The pharmacy chapter of the guideline has been implemented in all public hospitals since 2010. The document has explicitly indicated that pharmacists need to contribute to the safe, effective, and economic use of medicines so as to maximize treatment outcomes.
However, introducing clinical pharmacy services in Ethiopia requires pharmacists who are well trained in patient-focused services. That need proved to be a huge challenge in implementing the standards in the EHRIG because all pharmacists in the country were trained using the old product-focused curriculum. As a short-term solution to assist the Government of Ethiopia in commencing clinical pharmacy service at hospitals, SIAPS (and its predecessor program Strengthening Pharmaceutical Systems [SPS]) initiated an in-service training program aimed at building the clinical knowledge and skills of practicing hospital pharmacists. The training program proved to be a successful initiative that has attracted much interest and has brought together universities, the Pharmaceuticals Fund and Supply Agency (PFSA) and SIAPS for a new national objective: the initiation of clinical pharmacy service in Ethiopian hospitals, which is the first of its kind in the country.
Information contained in this report was delivered as a poster presentation at the 2015 American College of Clinical Pharmacy’s Global Conference on Clinical Pharmacy in San Francisco, California. Citation as follows:
Chanie T. Mekonnen N. Yiegezu Y. Tadeg H. An innovative in-service training course on clinical pharmacy for hospital pharmacists in Ethiopia. Poster presentation at the 2015 American College of Clinical Pharmacy’s Global Conference on Clinical Pharmacy, San Francisco, CA. October 19, 2015.
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