This was a descriptive retrospective study that used secondary data collected from ART service pharmacies’ routine reports. The reports contained the patient’s medication profiles on specific type of regimen. All first- and second-line regimens are captured by the reports. The study used data and reports from September 2012 to September 2014. About 205,832 patients were on ART by September 2012; this number increased to 269,779 at the end of September 2014 because of program expansion and increase in the uptake of patients into the ART program. The 2012 data were collected from 318 ART sites while the 2014 data were collected from 383 ART sites, the increase owing to ART program scale-up to new facilities. About 52.3% (200/383) of the sites used the electronic dispensing tool. The remaining facilities used standard manual formats to capture the medication profiles. Data obtained from the ART reports were entered into MS Excel. For descriptive statistics, percentages of patients on d4T-, ZDV-, and TDF- based regimens were calculated at two-month intervals covering the two-year study period. Then trends of regimen switch (from d4T- to ZDV- or TDF-based regimens) were analyzed by using tables and graphs. In addition, differences in trends between switches to ZDV- and TDF-containing regimens were assessed. Success was determined by the degree to which regimen switches were achieved in accordance with the plan without treatment interruptions.
Phasing Out Stavudine-Containing Regimens in the Ethiopian ART Program: The Role of Pharmaceutical Information for Decision Making
Health Facility Assessment on Availability of the 13 Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health Commodities Prioritized by the UN Commission on Life-Saving Commodities for Women and Children
Every day, about 800 women die from preventable causes related to pregnancy and childbirth. Although great strides have been made in reducing global child mortality, newborns now account for 44% of all childhood deaths. Ethiopia contributes to more than 4% of all global maternal deaths, which were estimated at 1,300 in 2013. In 2010, the UN Secretary-General’s Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health highlighted the suffering of women and children around the world caused by lack of access to life-saving commodities. With a strong focus on the reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH) continuum of care, the UN Commission on Life-Saving Commodities for Women and Children (UNCoLSC), identified and endorsed an initial list of 13 life-saving commodities that, if more widely accessed and properly used, could save the lives of more than 6 million women and children.
As part of examining the current status and empowering Drug and Therapeutics Committees (DTCs) to continually monitor availability of priority RMNCH (UN life-saving) medicines, a baseline assessment was conducted July 27–31, 2015, at selected health facilities in Ethiopia. The information generated from this assessment is expected to help guide future interventions needed in relation to strengthening health facility DTCs to monitor and ensure availability of these life-saving medicines on a continuous basis.
Building Local Capacity for Clinical Pharmacy Service in Ethiopia through a Holistic In-Service Training Approach
Recognizing the need for patient-focused services and the competency gap in the curriculum, schools of pharmacy in Ethiopia revised their curricula in 2008 to focus more on the patient. In addition, recognizing the potential benefits of introducing clinical pharmacy to the patients and the health sector, the Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) has included clinical pharmacy services in the pharmacy chapter of the Ethiopian Hospital Reform Implementation Guidelines (EHRIG) as one of the key services to be provided by hospitals. The pharmacy chapter of the guideline has been implemented in all public hospitals since 2010. The document has explicitly indicated that pharmacists need to contribute to the safe, effective, and economic use of medicines so as to maximize treatment outcomes.
However, introducing clinical pharmacy services in Ethiopia requires pharmacists who are well trained in patient-focused services. That need proved to be a huge challenge in implementing the standards in the EHRIG because all pharmacists in the country were trained using the old product-focused curriculum. As a short-term solution to assist the Government of Ethiopia in commencing clinical pharmacy service at hospitals, SIAPS (and its predecessor program Strengthening Pharmaceutical Systems [SPS]) initiated an in-service training program aimed at building the clinical knowledge and skills of practicing hospital pharmacists. The training program proved to be a successful initiative that has attracted much interest and has brought together universities, the Pharmaceuticals Fund and Supply Agency (PFSA) and SIAPS for a new national objective: the initiation of clinical pharmacy service in Ethiopian hospitals, which is the first of its kind in the country.
Information contained in this report was delivered as a poster presentation at the 2015 American College of Clinical Pharmacy’s Global Conference on Clinical Pharmacy in San Francisco, California. Citation as follows:
Chanie T. Mekonnen N. Yiegezu Y. Tadeg H. An innovative in-service training course on clinical pharmacy for hospital pharmacists in Ethiopia. Poster presentation at the 2015 American College of Clinical Pharmacy’s Global Conference on Clinical Pharmacy, San Francisco, CA. October 19, 2015.
Development of the National Minimum Standards for Healthcare Facilities in Ethiopia: A Milestone for Country Ownership and Sustainability of Best Practices
Licensing is a statutory mechanism by which a governmental authority grants permission to an individual practitioner to engage in an occupation or to a healthcare organization to operate and deliver services. Licensing allows governments to ensure basic public health and safety by controlling the entry of providers and facilities into the health care market and by establishing standards of conduct for maintaining that status.
In Ethiopia, government and development partners are investing a huge amount of resources to improve the quality of health services and ensure their sustainability. However, there remain the serious challenges of accountability, ownership, and sustainability. Accordingly, governance is recognized as one of the key strategic interventions in the Health Sector Development Programme (HSDP) IV. It is also recognized by international development partners as a building block for health system strengthening. The development of these standards can be taken as a good governance intervention within the health system. These regulatory tools mandate that both practitioners and health institutions comply with a minimum set of requirements and update their licenses regularly to continue operating as a healthcare-providing institution. This way, best practices (adapted to the country’s context) will easily be owned and sustained. On the other hand, the EFMHACA will develop and deploy standardized tools to execute inspection and licensing functions and ensure transparency and accountability in these processes.
Ethiopia’s Food, Medicine and Health Care Administration and Control Authority: Protecting the Public Health
The absence of regulatory systems to monitor the quality, safety, and efficacy of medicines can compromise the overall effectiveness of health care services and endanger the public health. A strong regulatory system is considered an essential component of a health system. In Ethiopia, the Food, Medicine and Health Care Administration and Authority (FMHACA), formerly known as the Drug Administration and Control Authority, regulates the country’s pharmaceutical sector in an environment vulnerable to drug smuggling and the circulation of substandard medicines. USAID/SIAPS and its predecessor program Strengthening Pharmaceutical Systems (SPS) have provided critical support to Ethiopia’s FMHACA to strengthen its regulatory and enforcement capacity to deter deadly counterfeit drugs from crossing the border.
Establishment of Medicines Waste Management and Disposal System in Ethiopia: a Report on Progress and Achievements
The development and dissemination of the medicines waste directive has made all stakeholders aware of the safe and proper management of medicines wastes. Following publication of the directive, but before its dissemination, some institutions have already started exploring various options to deal with disposal of existing wastes.
Substandard and Counterfeit Antimicrobials: Recent Trends and Implications to Key Public Health Interventions in Developing Countries
Tadeg H, Berhane Y. Substandard and counterfeit antimicrobials: recent trends and implications to key public health interventions in developing countries. East Afr J Public Health. 2012;9(2):85-9.
- The Use of Pharmaceutical Information for Decision Making in Namibia's National ART Program: Assessment Report
SIAPS conducted this assessment to determine the extent to which pharmaceutical information generated from the Electronic Dispensing Tool (EDT) and […]
The Directorate of Drugs and Medical Supplies (DDMS) plays a key role in providing technical guidance and setting strategic direction […]
- Systems for Improved Access to Pharmaceuticals and Services (SIAPS) Program Inventory of Key Technical Resources
The main purpose of this inventory is to serve as a reference to help stakeholders working in the pharmaceutical sector […]